Mnemonics in Pharmacology

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As a healthcare professional, it can be difficult to keep track of all the different pharmacology terms and concepts. This is where mnemonics come in handy. They are specially designed to help you remember important pharmacology concepts by making them easier to remember.

I ESCAPED CPR mnemonic

Often, the study of pharmacology can be overwhelming to nurses and healthcare professionals. There is a massive volume of information that must be memorized, but using mnemonics can make the information easier to remember. One mnemonic is called I ESCAPED CPR.

The I ESCAPED CPR mnenmonic helps pharmacy students remember key parameters of drug therapy. Students need to analyze medication regimens and come up with rational decisions regarding drug therapy. This process is a complex one, and the mnemonic can help students make decisions in an organized manner.


In collaboration with UTHSC College of Medicine and Memphis Escape Games, the College of Pharmacy created an escape room that focuses on social determinants of health and medication adherence. In the virtual experience, students work collaboratively in teams to solve puzzles to gain insight into medication safety and adherence.

To create the virtual escape room, the instructors focused on learner-centered design. The objective was to help students review concepts before taking the final exam. In order to make the activity interactive, they provided multiple question formats that required students to analyze data and make decisions regarding medication protocol. In addition, video clips from YouTube were embedded in some of the rooms.

The escape room was facilitated by two faculty members and piloted with 15 student pharmacists. The team-based format was adjusted to ensure smoother workflow and timing, and facilitators carried clues from one station to the next. This helped prevent bottlenecks at stations and allowed the game to continue for all teams. After being tweaked for content and timing, the game was offered as part of continuing education for ACPE members.

While students are not required to participate in an escape room, the experience was engaging, affordable, and effective. In the past, students in pharmacology classes engaged in low-fidelity lab-based activities. However, a recent public health crisis forced the instructors to modify the course and provide students with a better online experience. The course team envisioned the virtual pharmacology escape room as a learning activity that would help students review difficult course concepts and practice medication protocols.

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There are some adverse events associated with the COVID-19 vaccine. These include Myocarditis and pericarditis. Some side effects are moderate to severe. There is no clear causal relationship. These are reported in the adverse event reports that Pfizer-BioNTech submitted with their Biological License Application. The reports contain data from 63 countries spanning from Dec. 1, 2020, to Feb. 28, 2021.

Myocarditis and pericarditis

A 22-year-old male presented to an ED complaining of low-grade fever, chills, and chest pain. He began experiencing these symptoms 12 hours after receiving his second Pfizer Covid vaccine. He was given a routine physical exam but noted that his symptoms had worsened. His chest pain was associated with shortness of breath and palpitations. A repeat ECG showed an irregular heartbeat.

As a precaution, vaccinated individuals should not ignore warnings of these serious side effects. These reactions are relatively rare and usually resolve within a few days or weeks. However, if a person experiences these symptoms, they should seek medical attention immediately.

Although these are rare Pfizer Covid vaccine side effects, they are important to monitor. These side effects are caused by the mRNA in the COVID-19 vaccine, which can cause inflammation in the heart muscle and pericardium. In some patients, both of these conditions will occur, and in others they will develop separately.

Symptomatic myocarditis and pericardite may occur in a vaccine, but they are often transient and self-limiting. In addition, the clinical impact of myocarditis will vary based on its etiology and unpredictable physiologic responses. Elevated cardiac troponin may help doctors diagnose myocarditis, but it does not provide conclusive evidence. Pericarditis and myocarditis can occur together and are often mistakenly diagnosed as myopericarditis.

Although the risks of myocarditis are low, they are serious and may require emergency medical attention. In most cases, the patient will be able to recover with rest and common oral medications. Pfizer continues to recommend the vaccine for children and adults over five years old.

Pericarditis and myocarditis are among the Pfizer Covid vaccine side effects. A recent study found that mRNA vaccines are associated with myocarditis. The COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was associated with an increased risk of myocarditis in younger males. The rate was 4.8 cases per million. However, there is still no definitive proof that the vaccine caused myocarditis.

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In rare instances, the vaccination can cause these side effects. Symptoms of myocarditis include shortness of breath, chest discomfort, irregular heartbeat, and chest pain. The condition can also cause dizziness and fever. Although myocarditis is rare, it is still important to seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms.

The CDC is investigating the long-term outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccines have a small risk of pericarditis and myocarditis, but the benefits of the vaccine far outweigh the risk of myocarditis and pericarditus.

In another study, patients who had received the mRNA-1273 vaccine had an increased risk of pericarditis within the first week. However, this was not associated with pericarditis after previous vaccinations. Pericarditis was also significantly associated with a history of myocarditis and pericarditus. Although these side effects are rare, they are still something to be aware of before getting a child vaccinated.

Reduced protection against Covid infections

The study concluded that a Pfizer Covid vaccine provides reduced protection against Covid infections. Its effectiveness was assessed by using a mathematical model based on the effective reproduction number (VE-D) of 1.2 and the incidence of Covid infections in a population with at least 10% pre-existing immunity. This base-case scenario assumed that people would self-isolate from infected individuals following the onset of symptoms. In this scenario, the rate of attack would be 9.0% on day 300 without the vaccine.

The study also showed that the lower-dose COVID-19 vaccine offered less protection against COVID infections than the higher-dose vaccine. However, the vaccine was still effective in protecting young children and adults from the disease. In addition, the vaccine showed good protection against serious illness in people with heart conditions. The study examined the data from 1.2 million fully vaccinated children and adolescents aged five to 17 years.

The vaccines showed high efficacy in two large efficacy trials. Both studies demonstrated reduced incidence and hospitalizations of COVID infection. In December 2020, population-wide vaccination of COVID vaccines will begin. The vaccine’s effectiveness in preventing infection, serious illness, hospitalization and death has been documented in numerous research studies.

The vaccine’s effect on death was not statistically significant, but it did protect against the disease. In addition, the protective effect on mortality varied based on age and the type of vaccine. The vaccine’s protective effect was based on BioNTech’s proprietary mRNA technology. It has FDA authorization for use under emergency use.

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The overall attack rate was decreased by 4.6% in those who received the vaccine. The vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of deaths, ICU admissions, and non-ICU hospitalisations, with the highest reduction seen in older adults. Adverse outcomes were also significantly reduced. Non-ICU hospitalizations and ICU hospitalizations decreased by 65.6%, while deaths were reduced by 69.2%. Although vaccination reduces the incidence of Covid infections, it is important to follow non-pharmaceutical interventions to maintain the greatest impact.

Moderate to severe side effects

There have been reports of moderate to severe side effects following the administration of Pfizer Covid vaccines. The most common adverse reactions reported by individuals are injection site pain and swelling, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, fever, and chills. In addition, side effects are more likely to occur in females than in males. This is due to females’ higher body fat percentage, which affects the vaccine’s distribution. Moreover, these adverse reactions are more likely to occur on the second or third dose of the vaccine.

Moderate to severe adverse events were more common in older age groups. Injection site reactions were more common in the second and third dose groups. However, no doses of the vaccine caused grade 4 local reactions. These reactions started within one to two days after the first and second doses.

Most of the side effects are mild or transient. They indicate that the body is responding to the vaccine and fighting off the virus. These symptoms usually resolve within a few days. It does not mean that the vaccine is ineffective, as everyone responds differently to the vaccine.

Some of the most common COVID-19 vaccine side effects are soreness at the injection site, muscle pain, fatigue, and headache. A few individuals have also reported fever and chills. However, these effects are temporary and may be prevented with medication. The COVID-19 vaccine is a two-dose vaccine, and in clinical trials, the side effects were more common after the second dose.

However, the risk of serious adverse reactions from Pfizer Covid vaccines has been minimal compared to placebo. The Norwegian Medicines Agency suggests that vaccination should continue in these patients, and doctors should monitor these patients carefully. These vaccines have been associated with low blood platelet counts, which can aggravate underlying diseases.

The COVID-19 vaccine has also been linked with a rare, but potentially life-threatening blood clotting disorder called thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS). This condition is rare and only affects a small percentage of people. The CDC and FDA have recommended that this vaccine be temporarily paused in April 2021. Until then, healthcare professionals should familiarize themselves with the fact sheets regarding the risk of TTS.

A recent study conducted in Ecuador has also highlighted a possible adverse effect of COVID vaccines. In this study, medical practitioners were vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccine and a survey was conducted seven days after the first dose. The participants reported experiencing headache, fever, diarrhoea, and fatigue.

In addition to the flu vaccine, there are two types of COVID vaccines available: COVID-19 and CoviVac. The latter has fewer severe side effects than the flu vaccine. These two types of vaccines are not available for public use, but are still being used in clinical trials. The former is currently available in Russia, while the latter has not yet been officially approved.

Some of the most common side effects of COVID-19 include myocarditis, a condition where the lining around the heart becomes inflamed. In this rare case, a patient may require emergency medical treatment. However, most of these patients respond well to treatment and are free of serious side effects.

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